US EMS Culture of Safety effort: http://www.emscultureofsafety.org/
Canadian EMS Culture of Safety effort: http://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/English/research/commissionedResearch/patientSafetyinEMS/
IHI Culture of Safety http://www.ihi.org/knowledge/Pages/Changes/DevelopaCultureofSafety.aspx
Published Research Library
Becker LR, Zaloshnja E, Levick NR, Li G, Miller TR. Relative risk of injury and death in ambulances and other emergency vehicles. Accid Anal Prev 2003;35(6):941–8.
Biggers WAJ, Zachariah BS, Pepe PE. Emergency medical vehicle collisions in an urban system. Prehosp Disaster Med 1996;11(3): 195–201.
Boal WL, Leiss JK, Ratcliffe JM, et al. The national study to prevent blood exposure in paramedics: rates of exposure to blood. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2010;83(2):191–9.
Brice JH, Studnek JR, Bigham BL, et al. EMS provider and patient safety during response and transport. proceedings of an ambulance safety conference. Prehosp Emerg Care 2012;16(1):3–19.
Chapman SA, Lindler V, Kaiser JA, Nielsen CS, Bates T, Hailer- O’Keefe L. Emergency Medical Services Workforce for the 21st Century Project. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2008.
Cook RT, Meador SA, Buckingham BD, Groff LV. Opportunity for seatbelt usage by ALS providers. Prehosp Disaster Med 1991;6: 469–71.
Conrad KM, Reichelt PA, Lavender SA, Gacki-Smith J, Hattle S. Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers. concept generation of patient-handling devices. Appl Ergon 2008;39(6): 792–802.
Corbett SW, Grange JT, Thomas TL. Exposure of prehospital care providers to violence. Prehosp Emerg Care 1998;2(2):127–31.
Crill MT, Hostler D. Back strength and flexibility of EMS providers in practicing prehospital providers. J Occup Rehabil 2005;15(2): 105–11.
Custalow CB, Gravitz CS. Emergency medical vehicle collisions and potential for preventive intervention. Prehosp Emerg Care 2004;8(2):175–84.
Eliseo LJ, Murray KA, White LF, Dyer S, Mitchell PA, Fernandez WG. EMS providers’ perceptions of safety climate and adherence to safe work practices. Prehosp Emerg Care 2012;16(1):53–8.
Grange JT, Corbett SW. Violence against emergency medical services personnel. Prehosp Emerg Care 2002;6(2):186–90. Cutter J, Jordan S. Uptake of guidelines to avoid and report exposure to blood and body fluids. J Adv Nurs 2004;46(4):441–52.
Kahn CA, Pirrallo RG, Kuhn EM. Characteristics of fatal ambulance crashes in the United States: an 11-year retrospective analysis. Prehosp Emerg Care 2001;5(3):261–9.
Larmon B, LeGassick TF, Schriger DL. Differential front and back seat safety belt use by prehospital care providers. Am J Emerg Med 1993;11(6):595–9.
Leiss JK, Ratcliffe JM, Lyden JT, et al. Blood exposure among paramedics: incidence rates from the national study to prevent blood exposure in paramedics. Ann Epdemiol 2006;16(9):720–5.
Patterson PD, Huang DT, Fairbanks RJ, Wang HE. The emergency medical services safety attitudes questionnaire. Am J Med Qual 2010;25(2):109–15. Patterson PD, Huang
Patterson PD, Huang DT, Fairbanks RJ, Simeone SJ, Weaver MD, Wang HE. Variation in emergency medical services workplace safety culture. Prehosp Emerg Care 2010;14(4):448–60.
Lavender SA, Conrad KM, Reichelt PA, Gacki-Smith J, Kohok AK. Designing ergonomic interventions for EMS workers, Part I. transporting patients down the stairs. Appl Ergon 2007;38(1): 71–81.
Maguire BJ. Transportation-Related Injuries and Fatalities among Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 2011; 26(4): 1-7.
Maguire BJ. Hunting KL. Guidotti TL. Smith GS. “The Epidemiology of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Among EMS Personnel.” Prehospital Emergency Care. 2005; 9: 405–411.
Maguire BJ, Smith S. Injuries and fatalities among emergency medical technicians and paramedics in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med 2013;28(4):376–82.
Maguire BJ, Hunting KL, Smith GS, Levick NR. Occupational fatalities in emergency medical services. A hidden crisis. Ann Emerg Med 2002;40(6):625–32.
McGinnis S, Moore J, Armstrong D. The Emergency Care Workforce in the U.S. New York: Rensselaer, 2006.
Mock EF, Wrenn KD, Wright SW, Eustis TC, Slovis CM. Prospective field study of violence in emergency medical services calls. Ann Emerg Med 1998;32(1):33–6.
Myers LA, Russi CS, Will MD, Hankins DG. Effect of an onboard event recorder and a formal review process on ambulance driving behavior. Emerg Med J 2012;29(2):133–5.
Pozzi C. Exposure of prehospital providers to violence and abuse. J Emerg Nurs 1998;24(4):320–33.
Reichard AA, Marsh SM, Moore PH. Fatal and nonfatal injuries among emergency medical technicians and paramedics. Prehosp Emerg Care 2011;15(4):511–17.
Schwartz RJ, Benson L, Jacobs LM. The prevalence of occupational injuries in EMTs in New England. Prehosp Disaster Med 1993;8(1):45–50.
Slattery DE, Silver A. The hazards of providing care in emergency vehicles. An opportunity for reform. Prehosp Emerg Care 2009;13(3):388–97.
Studnek JR, Ferketich A. Organizational policy and other factors associated with emergency medical technician seat belt use. J Safety Res 2007;38(1):1–8.
Studnek JR, Fernandez AR. Characteristics of emergency medical technicians involved in ambulance crashes. Prehosp Disaster Med 2008;23(5):432–7.
Studnek JR, MacCrawford J, Fernandez AR. Evaluation of occupational injuries in an urban emergency medical services system before and after implementation of electrically powered stretchers. Appl Ergon 2012;43(1):198–202.Suyama J, Rittenberger JC, Patterson PD, Hostler D. Comparison of public safety provider injury rates. Prehosp Emerg Care 2009;13(4):451–5.
Studnek J, Margolis G. What we know about the EMS workforce. JEMS 2006;31(1):30. Heightman AJ. EMS workforce. A comprehensive listing of certified EMS providers by state & how the workforce has changed since 1993. JEMS 2000;25(3):108–12.
Sofianopoulos S, Williams B, Archer F, Thompson B. The exploration of physical fatigue, sleep and depression in paramedics: a pilot study. Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care. 2011; 9(1).
Thomas EJ, Studdert DM, Burstin HR, et al. Incidence and types of adverse events and negligent care in Utah and Colorado. Med Care 2000;38:261–71 [PubMed]
Tinitnalli JE, McCoy M. Violent patients and the prehospital provider. Ann Emerg Med 1993;22(8):1276–9.
U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). National EMS Assessment (Final Draft). Available at: http://ems.gov/news/assessment.html. Accessed 31 December 2011.
Vilke GM, Tornabene SV, Stepanski B, Shipp HE, Ray LU, Metz MA, Vroman D, Anderson M, Murrin PA, Davis DP, Harley J. Paramedic self-reported medication errors. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2006; 10(4): 457-62.
Wang HE, Fairbanks RJ, Shah MN, Abo BN, Yealy DM. Tort claims and adverse events in emergency medical services. Ann Emerg Med 2008;52(3):256–62.
Weaver MD, Wang HE, Fairbanks RJ, Patterson PD. The association between EMS workplace safety culture and safety outcomes. Prehosp Emerg Care 2012;16(1):43–52.